Introduction: Intracerebral Hemorrhage (ICH) has previously been shown to disproportionately affect African-American (AA) and Hispanic-American (HA) patients compared to White (W). ICH recurrence risk, while a critical determinant of long-term disability and mortality, has not been extensively studies among minority individuals.
Hypothesis: We sought to clarify whether AA and HA patients are at higher risk for ICH recurrence, and whether etiological differences exist for rebleeding events in different racial / ethnic groups.
Methods: We analyzed data for 1542 ICH survivors enrolled in the Ethnic/Racial Variations of Intracerebral Hemorrhage (ERICH) study, who survived at least three months post-ICH and were followed for at least one year. Participants underwent scheduled follow-up at 10-16, 22-28 and 50-60 weeks after index ICH to identify recurrence events. ICH etiology (primarily hypertensive vs. primarily amyloid related) was determined on the basis of index hemorrhage location, i.e. lobar for amyloid and non-lobar for hypertensive bleeds.
Results: We analyzed data for 1542 ICH survivors (W: n=514, AA: n=453, HA: n=565), and identified a total of 42 recurrent ICH events (2.72%). AA patients were at higher risk for ICH recurrence compared to W (3.75% vs. 2.10%, p = 0.012), while HA were not (2.20% vs. 2.10%, p=0.78). Self-identified AA race/ethnicity was associated with greater risk for non-lobar ICH (Hazard Ratio [HR]=2.77, p=0.008) than lobar ICH (HR=1.43, p=0.048).
Conclusions: AA ICH survivors are at higher risk for recurrent bleeding, and particularly for non-lobar hypertensive hemorrhages. These findings highlight the need for dedicated studies investigating the biological determinants of ICH recurrence in different racial/ethnic patient populations.