Background and Purpose: Acute intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) hematoma expansion predicts high mortality and morbidity, occurring in a third of patients presenting with this condition. Recent studies correlated ultra-early hematoma growth and hematoma morphologic appearance with ICH expansion. Our purpose was to develop simple and clinically useful score that would predict ICH hematoma expansion accurately.
Methods: This cohort included patients with primary or anticoagulation-associated ICH patients presenting <6 hours post ictus prospectively enrolled in the PREDICT study. Patients underwent baseline CT, CT angiography and 24-hour CT for hematoma expansion analysis. A risk score model was developed for predicting hematoma expansion (> 6 ml or > 33%). A 7-point acute ICH growth score was based on ultra-early hematoma growth > 5 mL/hour (yes=1), irregular morphology (yes=1), density heterogeneity (yes=1), presence of fluid-blood levels (yes=1), spot sign (yes=1), and use of anticoagulation (yes=2). Discrimination of the expansion score was assessed.
Results: We retrospectively studied 301 primary or anticoagulation-associated intracerebral hemorrhage patients. The 7-point acute ICH growth score demonstrated good discrimination for hematoma expansion>6 mL or 33% (area under the curve of 0.76). Median and significant HE are shown in the table below (p<0.001).
Conclusions: In a multicenter prospective study, the ICH expansion score demonstrate good correlation with hematoma expansion, and included recently reported variables such as morphology and ultraearly growth.