|| Checking for direct PDF access through Ovid
Children who present with transient neurologic symptoms raise concern for stroke as the underlying etiology. The rapid differentiation of stroke mimic from stroke in order to determine eligibility for hyperacute stroke treatment constitutes a unique and important diagnostic challenge in children. We used perfusion, diffusion, and magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) imaging to identify key imaging findings that together indicated a stroke mimic. We present a case series of 17 children who had transient neurologic symptoms and had MRA, perfusion, and diffusion weighted imaging in the acute period. The children ranged in age from 2 to 17 years of age. Among 17 children, 13 (76%) had headache at presentation. Thirteen (76%) children had focal MRA evidence of arterial pruning without occlusion, all had negative diffusion weighted imaging, and all showed evidence of hemispheric decreased perfusion by susceptibility-weighted imaging and/or arterial spin label perfusion imaging. Thirteen of 17 had left sided imaging findings. In all children who had repeat imaging (6/17;35%) these findings had reversed. No patient met clinical criteria for familial hemiplegic migraine. Only 6 (35%) had recurrence of transient neurologic symptoms since initial presentation; none had stroke. Use of combined MR imaging to include perfusion, diffusion and angiography can help to distinguish rapidly children who present with stroke mimics whose symptoms are likely to be transient and who do not require hyperacute stroke treatment.