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Objective: To evaluate the preliminary efficacy of remote ischemic conditioning (RIC) on patients with cerebral small vessel disease (SVD).Methods: Thirty patients diagnosed with symptomatic SVD within 30 days of onset were enrolled in this prospectively randomized controlled study for 1 year. All patients received routine medical treatment including treating vascular risk factors according to the guideline. Patients in the experimental group (n=14) were administered 5 cycles consisting of ischemia followed by reperfusion for 5 minutes on bilateral upper limbs twice daily for 1 year. Those in the control group (n=16) underwent sham ischemia-reperfusion cycles. Primary outcome was the change of cognitive function measured by mini-mental state examination (MMSE) and montreal cognitive assessment scale (MoCA), and secondary outcomes were changes of plasma biomarkers, cerebral hemodynamic parameters measured by vascular ultrasound and brain lesions measured by MRI FLAIR both at baseline and at the end of 1 year visit.Results: Compared with patients in the control group, patients in the RIC group had higher flow velocity (FV), and lower pulsatility index (PI), but without statistical difference. Patients in the RIC group had improvement in visuospatial and executive abilities (3.86±1.03 vs. 4.43±0.85, p=0.026), reduced plasma triglyceride (1.60±0.74 vs. 1.25±0.38, p=0.019), low density lipoprotein (2.89±0.81 vs. 2.26±0.67, p=0.003) and homocysteine (15.66±10.11 vs. 13.66±9.80 p=0.017). Similarly in the RIC group, the diastolic flow velocity (DFV) of middle cerebral artery (MCA) (right: 33.93±7.67 vs. 36.93±6.12, p=0.032; left: 33.93±7.67 vs. 36.93± 6.12, p=0.032) and the mean flow velocity (MFV) of left MCA (35.00±5.04 vs. 39.50±5.59, p=0.003) increased, and the PI of MCA (right: 1.11±0.19 vs. 1.02±0.14 p=0.030; left: 1.10±0.22 vs. 0.99±0.14, p=0.037) decreased.Conclusion: RIC appears to be potentially effective for improving cognition, enhancing cerebral perfusion, and modifying vascular risk factors in SVD patients. Further studies focusing on long-term neurological outcomes and potential mechanisms underlying RIC on SVD patients are needed.