Abstract TP414: Are Periodic Limb Movements and Obstructive Sleep Apnea Associated with Atrial Fibrillation or Resistant Hypertension in Stroke and TIA Patients?

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Introduction: Periodic limb movements (PLMs) and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) have been associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. There are limited data on the frequency of PLMs and OSA among a diverse cohort of stroke patients and their association with resistant hypertension and atrial fibrillation (AF).Hypothesis: Stroke and TIA patients with PLMs or moderate-severe OSA are more likely to have resistant hypertension and AF than patients without these findings on diagnostic polysomnography (PSG).Methods: Consecutive stroke and TIA patients referred by a vascular neurologist for PSG from October 1, 2012 to September 30, 2015 were included in this analysis. Baseline clinical characteristics and PSG results were collected retrospectively. The frequency of PLMs (mild ≥5/hour, severe ≥15/hour), arousals due to PLMs (≥5/hour), and moderate-severe OSA (Apnea-Hypopnea Index≥15) was evaluated by PSG to determine their association with AF and resistant hypertension, defined as patients whose blood pressure was not at goal with 3 antihypertensive agents of different classes or controlled with 4 or more medications.Results: Of 103 patients (mean age 60±15 years, 50% female, 61% non-white, 76% ischemic stroke, 23% resistant hypertension) who underwent PSG (median time from cerebrovascular event to PSG 5 months), 48% had mild PLMs, 28% had severe PLMs, 14% had frequent PLM arousals and 22% had moderate-severe OSA. In multivariable analyses, non-white race was associated with lower likelihood of mild (OR 0.32, 95% CI 0.13 to 0.80) and severe PLMs (OR 0.29, 95% 0.10 to 0.79) and female sex was associated with lower likelihood of frequent PLM arousals (OR 0.38, 95% CI 0.14 to 1.00). Factors associated with moderate-severe OSA included older age (OR 1.06, 95% CI 1.016 to 1.106) and the presence of AF (OR 4.26, 95% CI 1.17 to 15.44). There was no significant association between PLMs, PLM arousals or moderate-severe OSA with resistant hypertension.Conclusions: A significant number of stroke and TIA patients have PLMs and moderate-severe OSA. Stroke and TIA patients with AF are more likely to have moderate-severe OSA and should be referred for PSG. The presence of resistant hypertension was not associated with PLMs or moderate-severe OSA in our study.

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