Background: Recent large scale studies describing the trends of hospitalization cost secondary to aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) in the United States are lacking. We performed this study to discover these trends and the factors affecting the cost of hospitalization.
Methods: The Nationwide Inpatient Sample of the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project from year 2002 to 2013 was searched for patients with a primary diagnosis of subarachnoid hemorrhage International Classification of Diseases - Ninth Revision (ICD-9) code 430) who underwent either clipping or coiling of an aneurysm. Patients with traumatic intracranial hemorrhage, arteriovenous malformation, arteriovenous fistula, cost of care ≤ 0, discharge to another hospital, and any missing variables were excluded. The cost of hospitalization was calculated using total charge and cost-to-charge ratio provided by HCUP, and then was adjusted for inflation (for the year 2016) utilizing the Consumer Price Index inflation calculator. Univariate and multivariable linear regression analysis was performed on selected variables to identify the factors associated with a higher cost of care. The multivariable model was adjusted for calendar year, medical comorbidities (using the Charlson Comorbidity Index), hospital location (urban or rural) and hospital teaching status (teaching or non-teaching).
Results: We identified 20,905 patients with aSAH over the course of the 12 years. The mean and the median costs of hospitalization were $80,859 and $66,274, respectively. The median cost increased from $53,697 in 2002 to $73,901 in 2013 (p<0.001). Cost was also noted to increase by $2690 with the male gender, $18,877 with the presence of an acute ischemic stroke, $33,942 with the presence of respiratory failure and $18,464 with the requirement of ventriculostomy (all p<0.001). Every decade increase in age was associated with $3022 reduction in the cost (P<0.001).
Conclusion: Among the factors we studied, higher hospitalization cost was independently associated with the male gender and the presence of ischemic stroke, respiratory failure and the requirement of ventriculostomy. Older age was associated with a lower hospitalization cost.