Permeability Surface of Deep Middle Cerebral Artery Territory on Computed Tomographic Perfusion Predicts Hemorrhagic Transformation After Stroke

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Background and Purpose—Permeability surface (PS) on computed tomographic perfusion reflects blood–brain barrier permeability and is related to hemorrhagic transformation (HT). HT of deep middle cerebral artery (MCA) territory can occur after recanalization of proximal large-vessel occlusion. We aimed to determine the relationship between HT and PS of deep MCA territory.Methods—We retrospectively reviewed 70 consecutive acute ischemic stroke patients presenting with occlusion of the distal internal carotid artery or M1 segment of the MCA. All patients underwent computed tomographic perfusion within 6 hours after symptom onset. Computed tomographic perfusion data were postprocessed to generate maps of different perfusion parameters. Risk factors were identified for increased deep MCA territory PS. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis was performed to calculate the optimal PS threshold to predict HT of deep MCA territory.Results—Increased PS was associated with HT of deep MCA territory. After adjustments for age, sex, onset time to computed tomographic perfusion, and baseline National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale, poor collateral status (odds ratio, 7.8; 95% confidence interval, 1.67–37.14; P=0.009) and proximal MCA-M1 occlusion (odds ratio, 4.12; 95% confidence interval, 1.03–16.52; P=0.045) were independently associated with increased deep MCA territory PS. Relative PS most accurately predicted HT of deep MCA territory (area under curve, 0.94; optimal threshold, 2.89).Conclusions—Increased PS can predict HT of deep MCA territory after recanalization therapy for cerebral proximal large-vessel occlusion. Proximal MCA-M1 complete occlusion and distal internal carotid artery occlusion in conjunction with poor collaterals elevate deep MCA territory PS.

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