Background: The delay and dispersion of collateral circulation to the MCA territory is readily available prior to endovascular thrombectomy for acute ischemic stroke (AIS). Factors associated with collateral grade have never been established in such an extensive population, reflecting diverse subjects from around the world. Largescale data from the Trevo Retriever Registry enables mapping of the MCA collaterome for the first time.
Methods: The Imaging and Angiography Core Lab of the Trevo Retriever Registry independently conducted prospective evaluation of angiography in more than 1,500 subjects. Collaterals were systematically scored using ASITN grade prior to thrombectomy. Descriptive statistics detailed the distribution of collateral grades and analyses with demographic, imaging and clinical variables to explore key associations with routinely acquired registry data.
Results: 890 subjects (68.5 ± 15.1 years; 54.6% women; baseline NIHSS median 15 (10-19)) with AIS due to MCA occlusion had angiography of collateral circulation centrally adjudicated. Proximal M1 MCA occlusion was noted in 671/890 (75.4%). Collateral grade prior to thrombectomy included grade 4 or most robust collaterals in 38/890 (4.3%), 3 in 294/890 (33.0%), 2 in 467/890 (52.5%), 1 in 80/890 (9%) and 0 or none in 11/890 (1.2%). Baseline collaterals at angiography and pre-procedure ASPECTS were closely correlated (r=0.439, p<0.001) with more modest correlation between collateral grade and CTP/DWI (rrCBF<30% or ADC<620) infarct core (r=-0.31, n=391; p<0.001) or CTP/PWI (Tmax>6s) hypoperfusion at-risk (r=-0.10, n=391; p=0.043) volumes. First pass mTICI≥2b occurred in 553/858 (64.5%) with final mTICI≥2b in 824/890 (92.6%). Collateral grade prior to thrombectomy (each 1-point increment, after adjustment for other predictors) was strongly associated (OR 1.38 95%CI (1.12-1.7), p=0.002) with good clinical outcomes (mRS 0-2) at 90 days.
Conclusions: Largescale mapping of collaterals prior to MCA thrombectomy reveals marked variation in the extent and functional impact of the collaterome. The preponderance of partial perfusion in the downstream ischemic territory prompts the need to investigate and leverage the protective nature of the collaterome in AIS.