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Background: The risk of recurrence following an ischaemic stroke (IS) or transient ischaemic attack (TIA) is high, especially immediately after the event. Intensive treatment might be more effective in preventing recurrence than guideline therapy providing bleeding does not become excessive. We tested this in a subgroup of patients enrolled with TIA into the TARDIS trial.Methods: TARDIS was an international multicentre prospective randomised open-label blinded-endpoint controlled trial. Patients with acute non-cardioembolic IS or TIA were randomised to intensive antiplatelet therapy (combined aspirin, clopidogrel and dipyridamole) or guideline antiplatelets (clopidogrel alone, or combined aspirin and dipyridamole) given for one month. The primary outcome was recurrent cerebral events and their severity (using modified Rankin Scale) at 3 months. Data are number (%), mean (standard deviation, SD) or odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval (CI).Results: Of 3,096 patients, 953 (30.8%; intensive 480, guideline 473) were enrolled with TIA. At baseline: mean age 70 (SD 10); male 62%; onset to randomisation <12 hours 17%, <24 hours 48%. By day 90, no differences were present between the two treatment groups for the primary outcome, death or other functional outcomes. However, patients in the intensive arm were less likely to suffer a recurrent TIA than those on guideline treatment (OR 0.48, 95% CI 0.25-0.93).Conclusion: Patients with a qualifying event of TIA were less likely to suffer a recurrent TIA if they received intensive treatment rather than guideline. However, no differences were present for recurrent stroke events.