Objective: The goal of this study was to determine the effect of soda beverage intake on occurrence of cardiovascular in diseases in a large prospective cohort of postmenopausal women.
Methods: The data were analyzed for 93, 676 women 50-79 years of age who were enrolled in the observational arm of the Women’s Health Initiative Study. The effect of regular soda beverage intake (none or minimal, non-caffeinated, and caffeinated) on risk of ischemic stroke, hemorrhagic stroke, any stroke, myocardial infarction, and cardiovascular deaths was determined over a period of 12 ± 1 years (mean ± SD) using Cox proportional hazards analysis after adjusting for age, ethnicity, body mass index, systolic blood pressure, diabetes, cardiac catheterization, atrial fibrillation, and high cholesterol.
Results: The rates of diabetes mellitus were higher among regular non-caffeinated and caffeinated soda beverage users compared with those with none or minimal use. Compared with women who were non-users or <1 /month, regular non-caffeinated soda beverage users (>1/wk) had a lower risk of myocardial infarction (hazards ratio [HR] 0.9, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.8 - 1.0, p<0.02), and cardiovascular death (HR 0.8, 95% CI 0.7-1.0, p=0.02). Compared with women who were non-users or <1 /month, regular caffeinated soda beverage users (>1/wk) had a lower risk of any stroke (HR 0.89, 95% CI 0.80-1.0, p=0.05), hemorrhagic stroke (HR 0.69, 95% CI 0.0.47 - 0.97, p=0.034), and myocardial infarction (HR 0.90, 95% CI 0.81-1.0, p=0.056).
Conclusions: There appeared to be no increase in risk of incident cardiovascular events in women using non caffeinated or caffeinated soda beverages despite higher rates of underlying diabetes mellitus.