Background and purpose: Hyperperfusion syndrome (HPS) occurs in only 1-3% of patients after carotid endarterectomy (CEA). However, it can cause severe cerebral hemorrhage and may be lethal. Therefore, nurses need to be able to recognize the early signs of HPS and report them to the physician. In this study, we aimed to investigate the applicability of using the Intensive Care Delirium Screening Checklist (ICDSC) to discover early signs of postoperative HPS after CEA, allowing nurses to report the signs and possibly prevent disease progression.
Method: The study included 96 Japanese patients average age 71.9 ± 8.3 years old undergoing CEA from May 2008 to May 2017. There were 9 patients in the HPS group and 87 in the non-HPS group. Research design was a methodological study. To analyze differences between normally distributed continuous variables, the average value ± standard deviation was calculated and a t test used to compare between groups. For non-normally distributed continuous variables, the median and the range were calculated, and the Wilcoxon rank sum test was used to compare between groups. Ethical approval was granted by the Ethics Review Committee of the research execution facility.
Result: There was no significant difference in the patient characteristics in both groups. There was also no significant difference in the number of patients exhibiting signs of delirium (>4 points in total on the ICDSC) between the HPS group (n=8) and the non-HPS group (n=10). However, patients in the HPS group were unable to engage in conversation, while those in the non-HPS group responded to the nurses’ questions and several patients were able to engage in lucid conversation. The HPS group thus scored significantly higher than the non-HPS group on the "inappropriate speech or mood" ICDSC item (100% in the HPS group vs. 20% in the non-HPS group, P <0.001). In addition, on the "symptom fluctuation" item, the non-HPS group scored significantly higher than the HPS group (0% in the HPS group vs. 100% in the non-HPS group, P <0.001).
Conclusion: A total ICDSC score >4 and the presence of "inappropriate speech or mood" or "symptom fluctuation" strongly suggest the presence of HPS. In conclusion suggest that ICDSC is effective in identifying the early clinical signs of HPS after CEA.