AbstractBackground and Purpose—
Stroke imaging is pivotal for diagnosis and stratification of patients with acute ischemic stroke to treatment. The potential of combining multimodal information into reliable estimates of outcome learning calls for robust machine learning techniques with high flexibility and accuracy. We applied the novel extreme gradient boosting algorithm for multimodal magnetic resonance imaging–based infarct prediction.Methods—
In a retrospective analysis of 195 patients with acute ischemic stroke, fluid-attenuated inversion recovery, diffusion-weighted imaging, and 10 perfusion parameters were derived from acute magnetic resonance imaging scans. They were integrated to predict final infarct as seen on follow-up T2-fluid-attenuated inversion recovery using the extreme gradient boosting and compared with a standard generalized linear model approach using cross-validation. Submodels for recanalization and persistent occlusion were calculated and were used to identify the important imaging markers. Performance in infarct prediction was analyzed with receiver operating characteristics. Resulting areas under the curve and accuracy rates were compared using Wilcoxon signed-rank test.Results—
The extreme gradient boosting model demonstrated significantly higher performance in infarct prediction compared with generalized linear model in both cross-validation approaches: 5-folds (P<10e-16) and leave-one-out (P<0.015). The imaging parameters time-to-peak, mean transit time, time-to-maximum, and diffusion-weighted imaging were indicated as most valuable for infarct prediction by the systematic algorithm rating. Notably, the performance improvement was higher with 5-folds cross-validation approach than leave-one-out.Conclusions—
We demonstrate extreme gradient boosting as a state-of-the-art method for clinically applicable multimodal magnetic resonance imaging infarct prediction in acute ischemic stroke. Our findings emphasize the role of perfusion parameters as important biomarkers for infarct prediction. The effect of cross-validation techniques on performance indicates that the intrapatient variability is expressed in nonlinear dynamics of the imaging modalities.