Neurologic Outcome Predictors in Pediatric Intracerebral Hemorrhage: A Prospective Study

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Abstract

Background and Purpose—

Intracerebral hemorrhage is a considerable source of morbidity and mortality. This 3-center study describes outcomes of pediatric intracerebral hemorrhage and identifies 2-year neurological outcome predictors.

Methods—

Children 29 days to 18 years of age presenting with intracerebral hemorrhage from March 2007 to May 2015 were enrolled prospectively. Exclusion criteria included trauma; intracranial tumor; hemorrhagic transformation of arterial ischemic stroke or cerebral sinovenous thrombosis; isolated subdural, epidural, or subarachnoid hemorrhage; and abnormal baseline neurological function. Intracerebral hemorrhage and total brain volumes were measured on neuroimaging. The Pediatric Stroke Outcome Measure assessed outcomes.

Results—

Sixty-nine children were included (median age: 9.7 years; interquartile range: 2.2–14). Six children (9%) died during hospitalization. Outcomes in survivors were assessed at early follow-up in 98% (median 3.1 months; interquartile range: 3.1–3.8) and at later follow-up in 94% (median: 2.1 years; interquartile range: 1.3–2.8). Over a third had a significant disability at 2 years (Pediatric Stroke Outcome Measure >2). Total Pediatric Stroke Outcome Measure score improved over time (P=0.0003), paralleling improvements in the sensorimotor subscore (P=0.0004). Altered mental status (odds ratio, 13; 95% confidence interval, 3.9–46; P<0.001), hemorrhage volume ≥4% of total brain volume (odds ratio, 17; 95% confidence interval, 1.9–156; P=0.01), and intensive care unit length of stay (odds ratio, 1.1; 95% confidence interval, 1.0–1.2; P=0.002) were significantly associated with poor 2-year outcome.

Conclusions—

Over one third of children experienced significant disability at 2 years. Improvements in outcomes were driven by recovery of sensorimotor function. Altered mental status, hemorrhage volume ≥4% of total brain volume, and intensive care unit length of stay were independent predictors of significant disability at 2 years.

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