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We aimed to analyze the long-term outcomes of patients with primary central nervous system vasculitis according to the different therapeutic strategies used to induce remission.We assessed the rate of prolonged remission (defined by the absence of relapse at ≥12 months after diagnosis) and the functional status at last follow-up in patients with primary central nervous system vasculitis included in the French cohort, who achieved a first remission according to the 3 main groups of treatments administered: glucocorticoids only (group 1); induction treatment with glucocorticoids and an immunosuppressant, but no maintenance (group 2); and combined treatment with glucocorticoids and an immunosuppressant for induction followed by maintenance therapy (group 3). Good functional status was defined as a modified Rankin Scale score ≤2 at the last follow-up.Remission was achieved with the initial induction treatment in 106 (95%) of the 112. Prolonged remission without relapse was observed in 70 (66%) patients after 57 (12–198) months of follow-up. A good functional status at last follow-up (ie, modified Rankin Scale score ≤2) was observed in 63 (56%) patients. Overall mortality was 8%. The initial severity and the radiological presentations were comparable in the 3 treatment groups. More prolonged remissions (P=0.003) and a better functional status at the last follow-up (P=0.0004) were observed in group 3. In multivariate analysis, the use of maintenance therapy was associated with prolonged remission (odds ratio, 4.32 [1.67–12.19]; P=0.002) and better functional status (odds ratio, 8.09 [3.24–22.38]; P<0.0001).This study suggests that maintenance therapy with an immunosuppressant combined with glucocorticoids lead to the best long-term clinical and functional outcomes in patients with primary central nervous system vasculitis after having achieved remission with either glucocorticoids alone or in combination with another immunosuppressant.