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Oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) induces endothelial dysfunction and antibody formation. Because endothelial dysfunction is involved in cerebral small vessel disease (CSVD) (dilated Virchow Robin spaces, lacunar infarcts, and white matter lesions), oxLDL antibodies could play a role in CSVD pathogenesis. Therefore, we studied oxLDL antibodies in patients with high prevalence of CSVD: lacunar stroke patients and essential hypertensive patients.A total of 158 lacunar stroke patients, 158 hypertensive patients, and 43 healthy controls were included. We determined levels of IgG and IgM against hypochlorite (HOCl) and malondialdehyde (MDA) oxLDL using ELISA (values in optical density).Patients with CSVD had higher levels of IgG-HOCl-oxLDL (0.77 versus 0.70; P<0.01), as well as lower levels of IgM-MDA-oxLDL (0.55 versus 0.65; P<0.05) than patients without such lesions. Higher IgG-HOCl-oxLDL levels were only independently associated with higher numbers of Virchow Robin spaces at the level of the basal ganglia (β=0.218; P<0.001).An autoinflammatory process with lower levels of IgM antibodies and higher levels of IgG antibodies against oxLDL may be involved in CSVD.