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There is growing evidence about the importance of vitamin D for cardiovascular health. Therefore, we examined the relationship between dietary vitamin D intake and risk of mortality from stroke and coronary heart disease in Japanese population.A prospective study encompassing 58 646 healthy Japanese adults (23 099 men and 35 547 women) aged of 40 to 79 years in whom dietary vitamin D intake was determined via a self-administered food frequency questionnaire. The median follow-up period was 19.3 years (1989–2009). The hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals of mortality were calculated using categories of vitamin D intake.During 965 970 person-years of follow-up, 1514 stroke and 702 coronary heart disease deaths were documented. Vitamin D intake was inversely associated with risk of mortality from total stroke especially intraparenchymal hemorrhage but not from coronary heart disease; the multivariable hazard ratios (95% confidence intervals) for the highest (≥440 IU/d) versus lowest (<110 IU/D) categories of vitamin D intake were 0.70 (0.54–0.91; P for trend=0.04) for total stroke and 0.66 (0.46–0.96; P for trend=0.04) for intraparenchymal hemorrhage.Dietary vitamin D intake seems to be inversely associated with mortality from stroke.