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Alcohol effect expectancies and situational self-efficacy are important factors in addiction relapse. The extent to which these cognitive factors change during alcohol treatment and the relations between change in these two domains may facilitate our understanding of the transition out of addictive lifestyles. To evaluate such change, 101 male and female participants in an abstinence focused inpatient alcohol and drug treatment program completed measures of alcohol effect expectancies (AEQ) and self-efficacy (SCQ) during the first and fourth (final) week of inpatient treatment. Analyses confirmed our predictions that alcohol effect expectancies and self-efficacy were inversely correlated at the beginning of treatment, and that both alcohol expectancies and self-efficacy changed significantly during the four-week treatment program. Larger decreases in alcohol effect expectancies were evident for individuals who entered treatment with less confidence in their ability to resist drinking compared to those with more confidence in potential drinking situations. Results suggest that both expectancies and self-efficacy are useful factors to target in alcohol treatment.