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Introduction. New biological materials are needed for specific applications in reconstructive bowel surgery and for the prevention of adhesion formation. Amniotic membranes (AMs) are assumed to have a number of unique characteristics that enhance the ingrowth of the surrounding tissue. The aim of the present study was to provide proof of these qualities in a xenograft model. Materials and methods. A multilayer human AM (HAM) was applied to repair defined colon wall defects in Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 18). The control group was repaired with a suture (n = 6). The animals were killed humanely at 7, 21, and 42 days after implantation. Adhesions and perioperative complications were examined. Histological and immunohistological analyses were performed to assess a number of parameters, including degradation of the HAM, inflammation, graft rejection, and smooth muscle ingrowth. Results. Two rats in the treated group died. No other severe complications were observed. Adhesion formation was more prominently visible in the HAM group (P < .05). The initially increased inflammation in the HAM group reduced over time but remained significantly increased (P < .05). The HAM degraded over time and a subtle transient glomerulitis could be observed. Conclusion. HAMs were found to increase adhesion formation and were not suitable for bowel augmentation in the presented xenograft model.