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Capsular contracture is the most common complication of breast augmentation. Oxidized regenerated cellulose can be used as a matrix for drug transport. Colchicine is an antimitotic drug that interferes with various steps of wound healing. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of oxidized regenerated cellulose alone or in combination with colchicine on capsular contracture. Twenty-one adult female Wistar-Albino rats were divided into 3 groups. In group 1 silicone blocks only, in group 2 oxidized regenerated cellulose-wrapped silicone blocks, and in group 3 colchicine-impregnated oxidized regenerated cellulose-wrapped silicone blocks were inserted in the dorsal region. Four weeks later, implants were removed and histopathological examination was performed. Capsular thickness, inflammatory infiltrate degree, collagen fiber organization, and myofibroblast density were evaluated. Macroscopic examination revealed a distinct capsule formation only in group 1 animals, with average measurement being 134.65 µm on histopathological examination. In groups 2 and 3 animals, no distinct capsule formation was seen. Inflammatory infiltrate degree was found to be less in groups 2 and 3 animals than in group 1 animals. Collagen fiber organization around the implants was found to be parallel and organized in group 1 animals, whereas it was random and disorganized in animals in both groups 2 and 3. High myofibroblast density was observed in animals in groups 1 and 2, while no myofibroblast was found in animals in group 3. The results of our study suggest that coating silicone implants with oxidized regenerated cellulose or with colchicine-impregnated oxidized regenerated cellulose may be effective in preventing capsular contracture.