Three Anastomotic Techniques Following Laparoscopic Rectal Cancer Resection: Our Experience in 155 Patients

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Purpose. This study aimed to assess the impact of 3 anastomotic techniques after laparoscopic rectal cancer resection. Methods. In a cross-sectional study, the data of 155 patients who underwent surgery for rectal cancer were retrieved. An anastomosis was created between the left colon and anal canal with 3 different methods: coloanal anastomosis with protective ileostomy (group A), coloanal anastomosis without ostomy (group B), and delayed coloanal anastomosis (group C). The rates of anastomotic problems (leakage, peritonitis, and collection) were calculated for each treatment method. Multivariate analysis was used to verify the effect of anastomosis techniques. Results. In 5 (3.2%) patients, peritonitis was observed in which 3 (9.7%) of them belonged to group B and 2 (4.1%) belonged to group C. In 9 (5.8%) patients, presacral collection and anastomotic leakage were observed; 4 (8.2%) patients belonged to group C, 4 (12.9%) patients to group B, and 1 (1.3%) patient to group A. Postoperative obstructions occurred in 5 (10.2%) patients of group C, 2 (6.5%) patients of group B, and 2 (2.7%) patients of group A. Rectovaginal fistula was detected in 2 patients from group B. Conclusions. Laparoscopic surgery of rectal cancer with transanal method is reliable and acceptable in terms of oncologic and surgical results. This study showed the best results in patients who had protective ostomy.

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