Abdominal access techniques (including laparoscopic access)

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This contribution discusses safe exposure of intra-abdominal organs using laparoscopy and laparotomy; extraperitoneal access is not considered in detail. The techniques of Single Port Access (SPA) laparoscopy and Natural Orifice Transluminal Endoscopic Surgery (NOTES) will also be described. This review should be read in conjunction with ‘Anatomy of the anterior abdominal wall and groin’, in this issue. Common abdominal incisions are shown in Figure 1.

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