Lung cancer: diagnosis, staging and treatment

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Abstract

Lung cancer is the most common malignancy worldwide and carries a high mortality rate. The risk of developing lung cancer is strongly associated with smoking. The predominant subtypes of lung cancer are non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and small cell lung cancer (SCLC). NSCLC forms the majority of cases while SCLC makes up a smaller proportion. Patients with symptoms and signs suggestive of lung cancer are managed by a multi-disciplinary team approach in order to diagnose and stage the disease. The type and stage of lung cancer guides further management. Early stage lung cancer should be treated aggressively; with the most appropriate modality which may include surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy, or a combination of these various modalities.

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