Lung abscess remains a common complication of pneumonia and aspiration, particularly in immunosuppressed patients, and must be differentiated from a cavitary form of lung cancer. The conservative treatment with antibiotics is still the main therapeutic approach; however, percutaneous drainage may be employed in selected cases.
Inhaled foreign bodies require a prompt diagnosis with rigid or a combination of rigid and flexible bronchoscopies used to remove the foreign body thus avoiding complications and the need for a thoracotomy.
Bullous lung disease is a common pathology mainly developing as a result of emphysema. Occasionally, congenital or acquired lung cysts are diagnosed. Surgical bullectomy is the treatment of choice, but external drainage may be indicated in patients with a limited functional reserve.
Hydatid lung disease is caused by infection with Echinococcus, affecting most commonly the liver and lung. Resection of the cystic lesions may be necessary to eliminate the symptoms and to prevent further complications.