The scrotum is a septate pouch located in the urogenital region of the male perineum. It houses the right and left testes and epididymes, and together with the penis makes up the external genitalia in the male. Incompletely descended testis is a commonly encountered clinical problem in paediatric surgical practice. Proper management of this condition requires an understanding of the embryological development of the testis. Testicular torsion, testicular neoplasms and acute inflammatory conditions involving the epididymis and testis are all conditions which are relatively common in adolescence and young adulthood. Scrotal hydrocoeles tend to occur in a somewhat older group of individuals. Accurate clinical diagnosis and optimal clinical management of these various conditions are crucially dependent on a sound knowledge of regional anatomy. This article describes the anatomy of the scrotum and its contents in a systematic manner, emphasising the clinically-relevant features.