This 47-year observational study suggests that sporadic Zollinger-Ellison (Z-E) syndrome, particularly duodenal wall gastrinomas (DWG), is associated with a history of alcohol abuse.Methods
Thirty-nine consecutive Z-E patients were followed from 1962 through 2010. The drinking patterns of these patients were assessed and compared with 3,786 community controls.Results
Thirty-five patients had extrapancreatic gastrinomas (34 DWG and/or paraduodenal lymph nodes, 1 antral gastrinoma). Total gastrectomy was done in 24; 9 underwent less extensive operations to remove DWG, and 2 patients had no operations. There were no deaths from tumor progression. Four patients presented with pancreatic gastrinoma (PG) and liver metastasis, all died from tumor progression. Alcohol abuse (>50 g/d) was documented in 81% of patients with DWG and/or paraduodenal lymph nodes. The drinking patterns (drinks per day) of DWG patients were significantly different: DWG vs community control—abstainers, 3% vs 24%; 1–2 drinks, 16% vs 62%; 3–5 drinks, 29% vs 12%; and ≥6 drinks, 52% vs 2.5% (P < .01).Conclusion
Alcohol abuse is strongly associated with and may be a risk factor for sporadic Z-E with extrapancreatic DWG. Liver metastases and tumor deaths were not observed in this subgroup, supporting the concept that DWG and PG are different tumor entities.