Clinicopathological factors and long-term outcome comparing between lung and peritoneal metastasectomy after hepatectomy for hepatocellular carcinoma in a tertiary institution

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Abstract

Background.

Recurrence after liver resection for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is common. Resection of extrahepatic recurrences such as lung metastasectomy (LM) has been well documented. Conversely, reports on the long-term outcomes of peritoneal metastasectomy (PM) are lacking. In this study, we compared the outcome of lung and peritoneal metastasectomy after hepatectomies for HCC in a tertiary institution.

Methods.

We reviewed retrospectively the data of 1,222 patients who underwent hepatectomies for HCC in Samsung Medical Center in Korea from January 2006 to August 2010. We studied the clinicopathologic factors between resected lung metastasis (LM) and peritoneal metastases (PM) and the long-term outcome of patient survival. Kaplan-Meier analysis was used to study the survival outcome.

Results.

The recurrence rate of resected HCC in this cohort was 41.6% (n = 508). Thirty-two patients with lung metastasis (23% of all lung metastasis) underwent LM whereas 13 patients (36% of all peritoneal metastasis) with peritoneal metastasis underwent PM. Two patients underwent PM and LM sequentially. Demographic and clinical data between the LM and PM groups were comparable. The mean prehepatectomy PIVKA-II level was greater in the LM group compared with the PM group (P = .029). On univariate analysis of pathologic factors, the median tumor size (P = .005), proportion of patients with tumor >75 mm (P = .005) and rate of microvascular invasion (P = .047) were greater in the LM group. The median time-to-recurrence in the LM group was 12 (4–45) months compared with 18 (1–102) months in the PM group (P = .896). The 1-year, 3-year, and 5-year overall survival of patients in the LM group was 92%, 55%, 55% (4-year) whereas that in the PM group was 90%, 75%, and 75%, respectively. The mean overall survival in the LM was comparable with that in the PM group (P = .578).

Conclusion.

Twenty-three percent of patients with lung metastasis and 36.1% of patients with peritoneal metastasis could be considered for metastasectomy. The long-term survival of patients with PM and LM was comparable in this study. Although resection of LM improves survival in patients with resected HCC, we demonstrated favorable outcomes for PM as well, which in the past would have been considered palliative.

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