Incidence, risk factors, and treatment of incisional hernia after kidney transplantation: An analysis of 1,564 consecutive patients

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Abstract

Background.

The objective was to evaluate the incidence and treatment of incisional hernia after kidney transplantation and to identify potential risk factors.

Methods.

A retrospective cohort study was performed. All kidney transplant recipients between 2002 and 2012 were included. Two groups were identified: patients with and without incisional hernia. An analysis of risk factors for the development of incisional hernia was performed.

Results.

A total of 1,564 kidney recipients were included. Fifty patients (3.2%) developed incisional hernia. On univariate analysis, female sex (54 vs 35%), body mass index (BMI) >30 kg/m2 (38 vs 17%), concurrent abdominal wall hernia (30 vs 16%), multiple explorations of the ipsilateral iliac fossa (38 vs 19%), left iliac fossa implantation (36 vs 24%), history of smoking (72 vs 57%), and duration of the kidney transplantation procedure (210 vs 188 minutes) were associated with the development of incisional hernia (P < .05 each). In multivariate analyses, female sex (hazard ratio [HR] 2.6), history of smoking (HR 2.2), obesity (BMI >30; HR 2.9), multiple explorations of the ipsilateral iliac fossa (HR 2.0), duration of operation (HR 1.007), and concurrent abdominal wall hernia (HR 2.3) were independent risk factors. Twenty-six of 50 patients (52%) underwent operative repair, of whom 9 (35%) required emergency repair.

Conclusion.

The incidence of incisional hernia after kidney transplantation with a median follow-up of 59 months is 3.2%. Obesity (BMI >30), female sex, concurrent abdominal wall hernias, history of smoking, duration of surgery, and multiple explorations were independent risk factors for the development of incisional hernia after kidney transplantation. Attempts at preventing incisional hernias based on these risk factors should be explored.

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