|| Checking for direct PDF access through Ovid
Thrombomodulin, an anticoagulant that inhibits thrombin-induced growth factor promotion, also has an anti-inflammatory effect. Furthermore, thrombomodulin inhibits nuclear factor-kappa B activation, which plays a crucial role in cancer progression. We assessed the antitumor activity of recombinant thrombomodulin for pancreatic cancer.A xenograft orthotopic model was established in mice by implantation of human pancreatic cancer cells. The animals were treated with intraperitoneal injection of recombinant thrombomodulin 5 times a week for 4 weeks. Nuclear factor-kappa B activation was evaluated by measuring nuclear localization of the p65. Efficacy of recombinant thrombomodulin on the signal transduction of nuclear factor-kappa B was measured in vitro under preconditioning with thrombin or epidermal growth factor.Tumor growth was suppressed by recombinant thrombomodulin (P < .05). Recombinant thrombomodulin inhibited the expression of IκB kinase β (P < .05) and pIκBα (P < .01), as well as the activation of nuclear factor-kappa B NF-κB (P < .001). Furthermore, recombinant thrombomodulin inhibited thrombin-induced protease activate receptor 1 and nuclear factor-kappa B activation in vitro (P < .05). The number of Ki67-positive cells was decreased by recombinant thrombomodulin (P < .01). Recombinant thrombomodulin also suppressed body weight loss associated with pancreatic cancer (P < .05). No obvious adverse effects were observed.Recombinant thrombomodulin significantly suppressed tumor growth against human pancreatic cancer by blocking thrombin-induced nuclear factor-kappa B activation without adverse effects.