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The objective of this study was to elucidate whether the inhibition of Toll-like receptor 4 attenuates liver injury ischemia/reperfusion in the cholestatic liver.Rats were assigned into sham, bile duct ligation, sham ischemia/reperfusion (ischemia/reperfusion after laparotomy), and bile duct ligation ischemia/reperfusion (ischemia/reperfusion after bile duct ligation) groups. In some rats, TAK-242, an inhibitor of Toll-like receptor 4, was administered 15 minutes before ischemia/reperfusion. We measured intrahepatic Toll-like receptor 4 expression, serum hepatic marker expression, liver necrosis, gene expression of inflammation-associated factors, and serum high-mobility group box protein b1 levels.Intrahepatic Toll-like receptor 4 expression was significantly greater in the bile duct ligation group than in the sham group. Toll-like receptor 4 expression was further increased after ischemia/reperfusion in bile duct ligation ischemia/reperfusion groups. The levels of serum hepatic markers were significantly greater in both the sham ischemia/reperfusion and bile duct ligation ischemia/reperfusion groups than in the groups without ischemia/reperfusion. Liver necrosis was greater in the bile duct ligation group than in the sham group and was further increased in the bile duct ligation ischemia/reperfusion group. Genomic expression of inflammation-associated factors was also significantly greater in the bile duct ligation ischemia/reperfusion group than in the sham group. Serum high-mobility groups box protein b1 levels were greater in the bile duct ligation ischemia/reperfusion group than in the sham group (28.1 ng/ml versus 9.2 ng/ml, P = .011) and the bile duct ligation group (28.1 ng/ml versus 10.6 ng/ml, P = .017). These changes in the bile duct ligation ischemia/reperfusion group were significantly attenuated by preconditioning with TAK242.Toll-like receptor 4 inhibition has a potential to minimize severe injury after ischemia/reperfusion in the cholestatic liver through inhibition of high-mobility groups box protein b1.