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Parathyroidectomy (PTx) decreases the mortality rate of refractory secondary hyperparathyroidism (rSHP) due to chronic kidney disease. A consensus regarding which techniques of PTx are associated with better outcomes is not available. The aims of this study are to evaluate the clinical and laboratory evolution of 49 hemodialysis patients with rSHP who underwent PTx using different techniques.Patients underwent subtotal PTx (sub-PTx) or total PTx with autotransplantation (AT) of 45 (PTx-AT45) or 90 parathyroid fragments (PTx-AT90) and were followed for 12 months. We analyzed the expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), calcium-sensing receptor (CasR), vitamin D receptor (VDR), fibroblast growth factor receptor-1 (FGFR1), sodium-dependent phosphate cotransporter-1 (PIT1), and Klotho in parathyroid glands.Baseline median serum intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH) levels were 1,466 (1,087–2,125) pg/mL; vascular calcification scores correlated with serum iPTH (r = 0.529; P = .002) and serum phosphate levels (r = 0.389; P = .028); and Klotho expression was negatively correlated with serum phosphate levels (r = −0.4; P = .01). After 12 months, serum iPTH and alkaline phosphatase levels were significantly controlled in all groups, as was bone pain. The proportions of patients with serum iPTH levels within the ranges recommended by Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes were similar among the treatment groups. During the hungry bone disease (HBS), patients received 3,786 g (1,412–7,580) of elemental calcium, and a trend toward a positive correlation between the cumulative calcium load at the end of follow up and VC score post-PTx was noted (r = 0.390; P = .06). Two cases evolved to clinically uncontrolled hyperparathyroidism in the sub-PTx group. The expression patterns of PCNA, VDR, CasR, PIT1, FGFR1, and Klotho in parathyroid glands did not correlate with serum systemic iPTH levels or the duration of HBS.All 3 operative techniques were effective at controlling rSHP, both in clinical and laboratory terms. Neither the quantity nor quality of parathyroid fragments influenced serum systemic iPTH and AT-iPTH levels. The cumulative calcium load appeared to correlate with the VC score and may have affected its progression. The effects of phosphate restriction on Klotho expression in human parathyroid glands and the subsequent decrease in FGF23 resistance must be addressed in further studies.