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The effect of altered parathyroid hormone metabolism in renal insufficiency on intraoperative parathyroid hormone monitoring during parathyroidectomy is not well known. This study evaluates operative outcomes in patients undergoing parathyroidectomy guided by intraoperative parathyroid hormone monitoring for primary hyperparathyroidism with mild and moderate renal insufficiency.A retrospective review of prospectively collected data in 604 patients with sporadic primary hyperparathyroidism undergoing parathyroidectomy guided by intraoperative parathyroid hormone monitoring was performed. Patients were stratified by stage of chronic kidney disease (CKD); those with overt secondary hyperparathyroidism (CKD stages IV and V) were excluded. Rates of bilateral neck exploration, multiglandular disease, and long-term operative outcomes, including success, failure, and recurrence were compared.Of the 604 patients, 38% (230/604) had normal renal function or stage I CKD, 44% (268/604) had stage II CKD, and 18% (106/604) had stage III CKD. Overall, there were no differences in the rates of bilateral neck exploration or multiglandular disease or in rates of operative success, failure, or recurrence in patients with normal renal function and stages I to III CKD.Parathyroidectomy guided by intraoperative parathyroid hormone monitoring is performed with high operative success uniformly in primary hyperparathyroidism patients with mild and moderate renal insufficiency with outcomes similar to those with normal renal function.