Association of time-to-surgery with outcomes in clinical stage I-II pancreatic adenocarcinoma treated with upfront surgery

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Abstract

Background.

Time-to-surgery from cancer diagnosis has increased in the United States. We aimed to determine the association between time-to-surgery and oncologic outcomes in patients with resectable pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma undergoing upfront surgery.

Methods.

The 2004–2012 National Cancer Database was reviewed for patients undergoing curative-intent surgery without neoadjuvant therapy for clinical stage I–II pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. A multivariable Cox model with restricted cubic splines was used to define time-to-surgery as short (1–14 days), medium (15–42), and long (43–120). Overall survival was examined using Cox shared frailty models. Secondary outcomes were examined using mixed-effects logistic regression models.

Results.

Of 16,763 patients, time-to-surgery was short in 34.4%, medium in 51.6%, and long in 14.0%. More short time-to-surgery patients were young, privately insured, healthy, and treated at low-volume hospitals. Adjusted hazards of mortality were lower for medium (hazard ratio 0.94, 95% confidence interval, .90, 0.97) and long time-to-surgery (hazard ratio 0.91, 95% confidence interval, 0.86, 0.96) than short. There were no differences in adjusted odds of node positivity, clinical to pathologic upstaging, being unresectable or stage IV at exploration, and positive margins. Medium time-to-surgery patients had higher adjusted odds (odds ratio 1.11, 95% confidence interval, 1.03, 1.20) of receiving an adequate lymphadenectomy than short. Ninety-day mortality was lower in medium (odds ratio 0.75, 95% confidence interval, 0.65, 0.85) and long time-to-surgery (odds ratio 0.72, 95% confidence interval, 0.60, 0.88) than short.

Conclusion.

In this observational analysis, short time-to-surgery was associated with slightly shorter OS and higher perioperative mortality. These results may suggest that delays for medical optimization and referral to high volume surgeons are safe.

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