Characteristics and outcomes of children with ductal-dependent congenital heart disease and esophageal atresia/tracheoesophageal fistula: A multi-institutional analysis

    loading  Checking for direct PDF access through Ovid



Extracardiac birth defects are associated with worse outcomes in congenital heart disease (CHD). The impact of esophageal atresia/trachea-esophageal fistula (EA/TEF) on outcomes after surgery for ductal-dependent CHD is unknown.


Retrospective matched cohort study using the Pediatric Health Information System database from 07/2004 to 06/2015. Hospitalizations with ductal-dependent CHD and EA/TEF, undergoing CHD surgery were included as cases. Admissions with ductal-dependent CHD without EA/TEF were matched 3:1 for age at admission and Risk Adjustment for Congenital Heart Surgery-1 classification. Comparisons were performed using generalized estimating equations.


There were 124 cases and 372 controls. Cases included 32 (25.8%) low-risk, 86 (69.3%) intermediate-risk, and 6 (4.8%) high-risk patients. Cases had more females compared to controls (53.2% vs 41.1%, P = .022). Cases were more likely to be premature (28.2% vs 13.7%, P = .001) and low birth weight (29.8% vs 11.8%, P < .001). Cases had a similar frequency of Down syndrome, and DiGeorge/Velocardiofacial syndrome, but a higher frequency of anorectal malformations (4.3% vs 2.4%, P < .001) and renal anomalies (27.4% vs 9.9%, P < .001) than controls. Cases had a higher mortality on univariate (22.0% vs 8.4%, P < .001) and multivariable analysis (odds ratio 2.45, 95%, confidence interval 1.34 – 4.49). Prematurity also was significantly associated with mortality on multivariable analysis. Cases had a longer duration of mechanical ventilation, longer hospital duration of stay, and higher total cost than controls (all P < .001).


In children with ductal-dependent CHD, EA/TEF is associated with increased morbidity, mortality and resource utilization. A majority of patients undergo EA/TEF repair prior to congenital heart disease surgery. (Surgery 2017;160:XXX-XXX.)

Related Topics

    loading  Loading Related Articles