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No prospective randomized data exist about the impact of various strategies of parathyroidectomy in secondary hyperparathyroidism patients on quality of life and its possible relationship with metabolic status after the operation.In a prospective randomized trial, the Short Form 36 Health Survey Questionnaire was applied to 69 patients undergoing parathyroidectomy through various approaches: subtotal parathyroidectomy (n = 23), total parathyroidectomy (PTx) with autotransplantation of 45 fragments (n = 25) and PTx with autotransplantation of 90 fragments (n = 21). The questionnaire was completed at three moments: (1) preoperatively, (2) 6 months after surgery, and (3) 12 months after surgery.Quality of life improved significantly in the physical component summary score in all three groups. Subtotal parathyroidectomy scores changed from 30.6 preoperatively to 51.7 6 months after surgery and 53.7 12 months after surgery. Total arathyroidectomy with autotransplantation of 45 fragments scores changed from 33.8 preoperatively to 52.6 6 months after surgery and 55.2 12 months after surgery. Total parathyroidectomy with autotransplantation of 90 fragments scores changed from 31.8 preoperatively to 50.5 6 months after surgery and 55.2 12 months after surgery (all groups P < .0001). No significant difference was detected in the physical component summary score change among the three groups. The physical component summary score was negatively correlated to age, parathormone, and alkaline phosphatase preoperatively.Parathyroidectomy significantly improves quality of life in hemodialysis patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism, regardless of the type of operation.