Oncologic superiority of anatomic resection of hepatocellular carcinoma by ultrasound-guided compression of the portal tributaries compared with nonanatomic resection: An analysis of patients matched for tumor characteristics and liver function

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BackgroundThe superiority of anatomic resection compared with nonanatomic resection for hepatocellular carcinoma remains a matter of debate. Further, the technique for anatomic resection (dye injection) is difficult to reproduce. Anatomic resection using a compression technique is an easy and reversible procedure based on liver discoloration after ultrasound-guided compression of the tumor-feeding portal tributaries. We compared the oncologic efficacy of compression technique anatomic resection with that of nonanatomic resection.MethodsAmong patients with resected hepatocellular carcinoma, patients who underwent compression technique anatomic resection were matched 1-to-2 with nonanatomic resection cases based on the Child-Pugh class, Model for End-Stage Liver Disease score, cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma number (1/>1), and hepatocellular carcinoma size (>30, 30–50, and >50 mm). The exclusion criteria were nonanatomic resection because of severe cirrhosis, major hepatectomy, 90-day mortality (0 compression technique anatomic resection), non–cancer-related death, and follow-up <12 months. A total of 47 patients who underwent compression technique anatomic resection were matched with 94 nonanatomic resection cases.ResultsAll patients were Child-Pugh A, and 53% were cirrhotic. Liver function tests and signs of portal hypertension were similar between the groups. There was 1 hepatocellular carcinoma in 81% of the patients, and the hepatocellular carcinoma was ≥30 mm in 68%. Patients undergoing anatomic resection with compression had better 5-year survival (77% vs 60%; risk ratio = 0.423; P = .032; multivariable analysis), less local recurrences (4% vs 20%; P = .012), and better 2-year local recurrence-free survival (94% vs 78%; P = .012). Nonlocal recurrence-free survival was similar between the groups. The compression technique anatomic resection group more often had repeat radical treatment for recurrence (68% vs 28%; P = .0004) and had better 3-year survival after recurrence (65% vs 42%; P = .043).ConclusionCompression technique anatomic resection appears to provide a more complete removal of the hepatocellular carcinoma–bearing portal territory. Local disease control and survival are better with compression technique anatomic resection than with nonanatomic resection.

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