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In patients with digestive endocrine tumors (DET) and liver metastases (LM) surgical resection is the only curative treatment. However, 5-year recurrence occurs in 50–80% of patients in the literature. The effect of adjuvant chemotherapy (CT) on relapse-free survival (RFS) and overall survival (OS) is unknown.To assess the safety and the efficacy of systemic adjuvant CT with streptozotocin and 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) following LM resection in patients with DET.Between 1996 and 2006, 52 consecutive patients (23 males, median age 54 years [21–69]) underwent surgery for LM of well-differentiated DET in our center. The primary tumor was resected. After R0 resection of LM, patients were considered for adjuvant CT if the primary tumor was pancreatic, if LM was ≥10, or if the patient was <50 years old, in patients with other primary tumors. Twenty-nine patients received adjuvant CT and 23 were in the observation group. Adjuvant CT included 4 postoperative courses of i.v. streptozotocin–5-FU (500 and 400 mg/m2, respectively, daily for 5 days every 42 days). RFS, OS and toxicity were evaluated. Log rank and chi-square analysis were used to identify prognostic factors.Median post-operative follow-up was 47 months (4–162). In the adjuvant CT group, all patients except one received the 4 cycles. Two patients had grade 3–4 toxicity, including 1 febrile neutropenia resulting in death. Recurrence occurred in 43% and 65% of patients in the observation and adjuvant CT groups, respectively. RFS at 3 and 5 years was 51% and 38% in the observation group and 40% and 20% in the adjuvant CT group, respectively (P = .36). In univariate analysis, the significant prognostic factors associated with RFS were the number of LM (≥10) and synchronous LM. Administration of adjuvant CT was not correlated with RFS. OS at 3 and 5 years was 90% and 76% in the observation group and 96% and 96% in the adjuvant CT group, respectively (P = .58).RFS in patients receiving adjuvant CT was similar to that reported in the observation group and in historical cohorts without adjuvant CT. Thus, administration of streptozotocin–5-FU cannot be recommended in this indication.