Laparoscopic cholecystectomy under spinal anesthesia with nitrous oxide pneumoperitoneum A feasibility study

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Spinal anesthesia has been successfully used to perform various laparoscopic procedures. However, laparoscopic cholecystectomy under spinal anesthesia has not been reported. Is this feasible?


Ten successive laparoscopic cholecystectomies were performed under spinal anesthesia. The surgical technique was modified using nitrous oxide insufflation, lower levels of intraabdominal pressure, modified trocar sites, and minimal surgical manipulation. We used spinal anesthesia by intrathecal hyperbaric 10-12 mg bupivacaine with 10 μg fentanyl to give an anesthetic level at T8-T6.


The mean age was 39.3 years and there were four females. Only one patient was converted to general anesthesia due to intolerable shoulder pain. One patient vomited intraoperatively. Nine patients considered the procedure well tolerated under spinal anesthesia. The mean operative time was 47.4 min. Postoperatively, there were minimal pain and no vomiting.


Laparoscopic cholecystectomy can be performed successfully under spinal anesthesia and is well tolerated.

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