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A partial pneumothorax developed in a patient undergoing laparoscopic truncal vagotomy when a small pleural laceration was accidentally produced. Changes in oxygen saturation and PETCO2 were immediately detected by the anesthesiologist and measures were taken to maintain the patient's ventilatory stability. The pleural laceration was repaired laparoscopically, and the pneumothorax was corrected by ventilatory manipulation, avoiding the placement of a chest tube. The procedure was completed uneventfully. Literature about the causes of pneumothorax during laparoscopic procedures as well as preventive and therapeutic recommendations are reviewed.