The Benefits of a Second Transhepatic Route in Failed Percutaneous Management of Difficult Intrahepatic Biliary Strictures With Recurrent Hepatolithiasis

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Summary:Percutaneous stricture dilatation and cholangioscopic lithotomy has become a mainstay in the treatment of patients with recurrent hepatolithiasis associated with intrahepatic biliary strictures. In a consecutive series of 125 patients who underwent percutaneous management of recurrent hepatolithiasis from 1987 to 1999, there were 15 patients in whom the procedure failed to clear the stones. A second percutaneous transhepatic route was established for subsequent treatment. A reappraisal of its indications and efficacy was done. Treatment through a second route was helpful for patients with bilateral strictures, angulated duct, difficult strictures, large impacted stones, a subcutaneous jejunal limb, or hemobilia developing in the first route. Strictures remained impacted in 1 of the 15 patients (failure rate, 7%), with the remaining having complete clearance of stones. Cholangitis occurred in two patients; no other complications were encountered. A second percutaneous route is very helpful for the management of complicated hepatolithiasis and biliary stricture.

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