Splenic Cysts

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The treatment of splenic cysts is a difficult challenge to surgeons and physicians. This paper reviews the literature on splenic cysts, with special attention to the pathogenesis, diagnosis, and various options of surgical treatment. Splenic cysts are classified as primary or secondary cysts, according to the presence of an epithelial lining. The primary cysts are further subdivided as parasitic or non-parasitic. Secondary cysts are in most cases posttraumatic. Symptoms are usually correlated to the size of the cyst. Prior to surgery, imaging with ultrasound and computer tomography or magnetic resonance should be performed. A cyst puncture should be conducted for diagnostic purposes (amylase and bacteria) as well as to reduce the size of the cyst. Furthermore, the titer of Echinococcus and other biomarkers can be measured. Surgeons should make every possible effort to preserve splenic tissue and spleen-saving techniques with laparoscopic techniques are recommended.

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