|| Checking for direct PDF access through Ovid
To report our experience with minimally invasive percutaneous nephrolithotomy (MPCNL) (14-18Fr percutaneous tract) to treat staghorn calculi via multiple percutaneous tracts in a single session procedure, and evaluate the feasibility and efficiency of this technique.From March 2001 to November 2005, 100 patients with staghorn calculi were treated by MPCNL via multiple percutaneous tracts. The size and location of the stone, operative parameters, number of tracts, stone-free rate, operating time, hospital stay, and complications were analyzed retrospectively.A total of 209 percutaneous tracts were established in 100 renal units during 128 operations including 28 second-look procedures. The mean operating time was 107 minutes (range 43 to 130 min) and the mean hospital stay was 9.4 days (range 6 to 13 d). The initial stone clearance rate of 72% after the first session was improved to 93% after a second-look procedure in 28 patients. The mean blood loss was 112 mL (range 64 to 483 mL), 3 patients required blood transfusion and 1 patient with branched renal arterial injury during puncture received a highly elective embolism. Seven patients had a postoperative fever of 38.5°C or greater, whereas 4 patients had mild hydropneumothorax.With the development of instrument and increased experience, judiciously made multiple percutaneous tracts in a single session MPCNL for treating staghorn calculi in selected cases is safe, feasible, and efficient with an acceptable morbidity.