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We report the outcomes of a randomized clinical trial of single-port laparoscopic cholecystectomy (SPLC) and multiport laparoscopic cholecystectomy (MPLC).Fifty-four patients (27 in each group) were randomized. A visual analog scale was used with a 10-point scale for an objective assessment of incisional pain and incisional cosmesis on postoperative days 1, 3, and 14.The mean operating time was significantly longer in the SPLC. The mean cosmesis scores on postoperative days 3 (9.7 vs. 8.9, P=0.01) and 14 (9.9 vs. 9.2, P<0.01) were significantly greater in the SPLC group than in the MPLC group. The group’s mean visual analog scale scores for incisional pain, and their requirements for analgesics, did not differ significantly.Although SPLC takes longer than MPLC, experienced laparoscopic surgeons can perform SPLC safely with results comparable with those for MPLC. SPLC is superior to MPLC in terms of short-term cosmetic outcomes.