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This study examined the effectiveness of dexmedetomidine in preventing lung injury resulting from pneumoperitoneum in a ventilated rat model.Animals (n=18) were allocated randomly into 3 groups: control group, no pneumoperitoneum; sham group, pneumoperitoneum with intra-abdominal pressure of 12 mm Hg for 60 minutes; and dexmedetomidine group, dexmedetomidine administration 30 minutes before pneumoperitoneum. The rats were rested for 30 minutes after abdominal deflation. Then, blood samples were obtained for plasma malondialdehyde and ischemia-modified albumin (IMA) analyses. Tissue samples were taken for histopathologic examination and malondialdehyde analysis.Compared with the control group, the sham group had a significantly higher level of plasma IMA. Pretreatment with dexmedetomidine significantly reduced the IMA level. Histopathologically, tissues from sham rats exhibited moderate or severe tissue damage, compared with control tissues. Dexmedetomidine-treated rats showed significantly less tissue damage than sham rats.Dexmedetomidine prophylaxis resulted in significantly less IMA production and significantly less neutrophil infiltration, thereby helping to protect the lungs from injury after pneumoperitoneum.