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The gallbladder is an organ with accurate functions of concentrating and storing bile and regulating the bile flow. Cholecystectomy is associated with some severe complications in some patients. This study was to investigate the safety and effectiveness of gallbladder-preserving cholelithotomy (GPC) for patients with gallstones in laparoscopic and flexible choledochoscopic era.From January 2006 to January 2007, a total of 316 patients with gallstone were assigned to GPC according to our inclusion criteria at Yunna Lithiasis Hospital. The procedures were performed by 1 surgical team under laparoscopic and flexible choledochoscopic guidance. The short-term clinical outcome and long-term gallstone recurrence rate were evaluated.The success rate of GPC was 95.25%. No severe postoperative complications such as bile leakage and hemorrhage occurred. Conversion to cholecystectomy was required in 15 patients. During 25 to 72 months of follow-up, the gallstone recurrence rate at 12, 36, and 60 months were 0%, 3.32%, and 5.64%, respectively.GPC using laparoscopy and flexible choledochoscopy is safe and effective in selected patients, the stone recurrence rate is acceptable.