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The aim of this study was to compare changes in the systemic inflammation and immune response in the early postoperative (p.o.) period after laparoscopic Nissen fundoplication (LNF) was performed with standard-preassure and low-pressure carbon dioxide pneumoperitoneum.We studied 68 patients with documented gastroesophageal reflux disease and who underwent a LNF: 35 using standard-pressure (12 to 14 mmHg) and 33 low-pressure (6 to 8 mmHg) pneumoperitoneum. White blood cells, peripheral lymphocites subpopulation, human leukocyte antigen-DR, neutrophil elastase, interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-1, and C-reactive protein were investigated.A significantly higher concentration of neutrophil elastase, IL-6 and IL-1, and C-reactive protein was detected postoperatively in the standard-pressure group of patients in comparison with the low-pressure group (P<0.05). A statistically significant change in human leukocyte antigen-DR expression was recorded p.o. at 24 hours, as a reduction of this antigen expressed on monocyte surface in patients from standard group; no changes were noted in low-pressure group patients (P<0.05).This study demonstrated that reducing the pressure of the pneumoperitoneum to 6 to 8 mm Hg during LNF is reduced p.o. inflammatory response and avoided p.o. immunosuppression.