The Feasibility of Conventional Forward-viewing Endoscope for Endoscopic Retrograde Cholangiopancreatography in Patients With Altered Gastrointestinal Anatomy

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Background:Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) has been commonly used for biliopancreatic diseases of patients with normal gastrointestinal (GI) anatomy with a success rate of >90%. However, this procedure may also be necessary in patients with altered GI anatomy such as Billroth II or Roux-en-Y reconstructions. Performing ERCP in these patients may pose extreme technical challenges, and increase the risk of complications. The aim of this study was to analyze the feasibility of ERCP using forward-viewing endoscopy in patients with altered GI anatomy.Materials and Methods:Twenty-three patients with previous gastric resections and GI anastomosis, who underwent ERCP between 2012 and 2017, were included in this retrospective study. The major indication for ERCP was choledocholithiasis in 19 patients, and the others were acute cholangitis, sphincter Oddi dysfunction, and biliary pancreatitis. The sedation was induced using a combination of midazolam and propofol, and all procedures were performed using a forward-viewing endoscope.Results:Among the 23 patients, 14 were male individuals and 9 were female individuals, with an average age of 62 (range: 58 to 73) years. The median procedure time was 24 (range: 19 to 43) minutes. The success rate of bile duct cannulation was 91.3% (21/23 patients) and that of stone extirpation was 89.4% (17/19 patients with choledocholithiasis). Plastic stents were placed in the 2 patients in whom stone extirpation was not successfully performed. ERCP was repeated in these patients 8 weeks after the initial approach, and stone extraction procedures were successfully completed. The only procedure-related complication was edematous pancreatitis, which was observed in 1 patient (4.7%). The mean length of hospitalization was 2 (range: 1 to 5) days.Conclusions:Forward-viewing endoscopes can be effectively used in patients with altered GI anatomy by facilitating the access to the papilla and bile duct cannulation without increasing the incidence of complications.

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