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The efficacy and safety of open distal pancreatectomy (DP), laparoscopic DP, robot-assisted laparoscopic DP, and robotic DP have not been established. The authors aimed to comprehensively compare these 4 surgical methods using a network meta-analysis.The authors systematically searched MEDLINE, Scopus, Web of Science, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and ClinicalTrials.gov for studies that evaluated at least 2 of the following pancreatectomy techniques: robot-assisted DP, laparoscopic DP, open DP, and robotic DP. The surface under the cumulative ranking curve (SUCRA) was applied to show the probability that each method would be the best for each outcome.Altogether, 46 trials with 8377 patients were included in this network meta-analysis. Robotic DP showed the highest probability of having the least estimated blood loss (SUCRA, 90.9%), the lowest incidences of postoperative pancreatic fistula (SUCRA, 94.5%), clinically related postoperative pancreatic fistula (SUCRA, 94.6%), postoperative bleeding (SUCRA, 75.3%), reoperation (SUCRA, 96.4%), overall complications (SUCRA, 86.9%), and major complications (SUCRA, 99.3%), and the lowest mortality (SUCRA, 83.4%). Robotic DP also proved to be the best approach regarding the attainment of R0 resection (SUCRA, 75.4%) and the number of lymph nodes harvested (SUCRA, 64.1%).Robotic DP seems to offer clinical and oncological advantages compared with other DP methods for addressing diseases of the pancreatic body and tail, although it may require a longer operation time and learning curve. The present results require confirmation in future head-to-head randomized controlled trials.