Impact of Pneumoperitoneum on the Development of Acute Kidney Injury: Comparison Between Normal and Diabetic Rats

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Background:Minimally invasive surgery is considered the gold-standard approach for many surgical procedures. However, it requires CO2 insufflation and elevated intra-abdominal pressure (IAP), which may result in adverse pulmonary, cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, and renal changes. The kidneys are highly sensitive to pressure changes, where risk factors such as severe infection, dehydration, older age, and chronic kidney disease may aggravate the likelihood for the development of acute kidney injury (AKI). Unfortunately, the impact of diabetes mellitus on the deleterious effects of elevated IAP-induced AKI was not fully studied so far. The present study was designed to examine the effect of pneumoperitoneum on renal function and the development of AKI in diabetic rats.Materials and Methods:Sprague Dawley rats were divided into 2 groups: control (nondiabetic) rats (n=7) and diabetic rats (n=10). A Veress needle was introduced through the supravesical incision where inflating CO2 allowing the IAP to be increased to the desired pressures 7, 10, and 14 mm Hg for 45 minutes each and at the end of the experiment, the pressure was deflated to zero. During each pressure point, hemodynamic parameters were recorded and urine and blood samples were collected for analysis.Results:The baseline values of renal hemodynamic were significantly lower in diabetic rats. There were no major statistically significant changes from baseline in urinary flow, urinary sodium excretion (UNaV), glomerular filtration rate, and renal plasma flow during 7 mm Hg pressure in both groups. When the IAP was further elevated, a significant deterioration of these parameters was recorded. This trend was more pronounced among diabetic rats. When examining urinary neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin, a linear correlation was observed between the IAP and the biomarker level. This correlation was more significant in the diabetic group.Conclusion:The present study demonstrated a direct correlation between IAP elevation and the development of AKI. Diabetic rats were more sensitive to the deleterious effect of pneumoperitoneum, where urinary neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin levels may be used as a future biomarker to predict postoperative AKI, especially in patients with diabetes.

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