Treatment of Hepatic Hydatid Disease: Role of Surgery, ERCP, and Percutaneous Drainage A Retrospective Study

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Introduction:Failure to follow the World Health Organization’s Informal Working Group on Echinococcosis guidance or having limited experience in the management of cystic echinococcosis (CE) in endemic or nonendemic areas of the world may lead to risky unnecessary procedures.Materials and Methods:Medical records of all patients undergoing surgery for hepatic hydatid disease at the gastroenterologic surgery and general surgery departments of our hospital between December 2014 and October 2019 were collected and reviewed retrospectively. Demographic characteristics, the size and number of the cysts preoperative liver function tests, surgical treatment, endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP), percutaneous drainage (PD), morbidity, and treatment outcomes were reviewed.Results:Of 122 patients included in the study, 77 (63, 1%) were female and 45 (36, 9%) were male individuals and their mean age was 44.95 years. CE1 was identified in 13 patients (11.1%), CE2 in 69 patients (58%), CE3a in 7 patients (%5.9), CE3b in 28 patients (23.5%), and CE4 in 8 patients (6.8%). Twenty patients (16.4%) with a cystobiliary fistula in the liver, obstructive jaundice, and postoperative bile leak underwent ERCP. PD was performed in patients with fluid in the hepatic hydatid cyst pouch, increased pouch size because of bile collection, and clinical symptoms postoperatively. Patients presenting with persistent bile leak despite PD underwent ERCP and were treated with endoscopic sphincterotomy and stent placement. Patients with PD were followed by keeping the percutaneous drain open and closed for a while to create pressure difference in the cyst pouch after ERCP. The percutaneous drain was removed in the next 14 to 21 days after checking the pouch size, whereas the common bile duct stents were removed 2 months later after performing a follow-up cholangiography.Conclusions:ERCP should be the primary method for the diagnosis and treatment for hepatic hydatid cysts ruptured into the ducts. İn some cases, high-flow hydatid cysts with rupture into the bile ducts or persistent biliary fistulas can be treated with ERCP and endoscopic sphincterotomy, biliary stent, PD, and nasobiliary drainage without the need for surgical intervention.

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