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Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) occur rarely in the duodenum. The characteristics of duodenal GIST have not been well clarified. The aim of this study is to clarify the characteristics and surgical prognosis of patients with primary duodenal GIST.Data of patients with surgically treated primary duodenal GIST were retrospectively analyzed. Immunohistochemical expressions of p53, p16, and Ki-67 were evaluated to explain the prognosis.Compared with gastric or small intestinal GISTs in historical studies, duodenal GISTs had a relatively smaller size, lower mitotic count, lower Ki-67 LI, lower p16 loss, and similar p53 expression. The 1-and 3-year recurrence-free survival rates of patients with complete resection were 100 and 95.2%.Patients with completely resected primary duodenal GIST seem to have a more favorable prognosis. This may be related to the different expressions of some immunohistological makers compared with GISTs of other locations.